Sunday, May 22, 2011

What the Numbers Mean, and Propagation Predictions

What the Numbers Mean, and Propagation Predictions
a brief introduction to propagation and the major factors affecting it.

The sun emits electromagnetic radiation and matter as a consequence of the nuclear fusion process. Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths of 100 to 1000 Angstroms (ultraviolet) ionizes the F region, radiation at 10 to 100 Angstroms (soft X-rays) ionizes the E region, and radiation at 1 to 10 Angstroms (hard X- rays) ionizes the D region. Solar matter (which includes charged particles--electrons and protons) is ejected from the sun on a regular basis, and this comprises the solar wind. On a "quiet" solar day the speed of this solar wind heading toward Earth averages about 400 km per second.

The sun's solar wind significantly impacts Earth's magnetic field. Instead of being a simple bar magnet, Earth's magnetic field is compressed by the solar wind on the side facing the sun and is stretched out on the side away from the sun (the magnetotail, which extends tens of earth radii downwind). While the sun's electromagnetic radiation can impact the entire ionosphere that is in daylight, charged particles ejected by the sun are guided into the ionosphere along magnetic field lines and thus can only impact high latitudes where the magnetic field lines go into the Earth.

Additionally, when electromagnetic radiation from the sun strips an electron off a neutral constituent in the atmosphere, the resulting electron can spiral along a magnetic field line (it spirals around the magnetic field line at the electron gyrofrequency). Thus Earth's magnetic field plays an important and critical role in propagation.

Variations in Earth's magnetic field are measured by magnetometers. There are two measurements readily available from magnetometer data--the daily A index and the three-hour K index. The A index is an average of the eight 3-hour K indices, and uses a linear scale and goes from 0 (quiet) to 400 (severe storm). The K index uses a quasi-logarithmic scale (which essentially is a compressed version of the A index) and goes from 0 to 9 (with 0 being quiet and 9 being severe storm). Generally an A index at or below 15 or a K index at or below 3 is best for propagation.

Sunspots are areas on the sun associated with ultraviolet radiation. Thus they are tied to ionization of the F region. The daily sunspot number, when plotted over a month time frame, is very spiky. Averaging the daily sunspot numbers over a month results in the monthly average sunspot number, but it is also rather spiky when plotted. Thus a more averaged, or smoothed, measurement is needed to measure solar cycles. This is the smoothed sunspot number (SSN). The SSN is calculated using six months of data before and six months of data after the desired month, plus the data for the desired month. Because of this amount of smoothing, the official SSN is one-half year behind the current month. Unfortunately this amount of smoothing may mask any short-term unusual solar activity that may enhance propagation.

Sunspots come and go in an approximate 11-year cycle. The rise to maximum (4 to 5 years) is usually faster than the descent to minimum (6 to 7 years). At and near the maximum of a solar cycle, the increased number of sunspots causes more ultraviolet radiation to impinge on the atmosphere. This results in significantly more F region ionization, allowing the ionosphere to refract higher frequencies (15, 12, 10, and even 6 meters) back to Earth for DX contacts. At and near the minimum between solar cycles, the number of sunspots is so low that higher frequencies go through the ionosphere into space. Commensurate with solar minimum, though, is less absorption and a more stable ionosphere, resulting in the best propagation on the lower frequencies (160 and 80 meters). Thus, in general, high SSNs are best for high-frequency propagation, and low SSNs are best for low-frequency propagation.

Most of the disturbances to propagation come from solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The solar flares that affect propagation are called X-ray flares due to their wavelength being in the 1 to 8 Angstrom range. X-ray flares are classified as C (the smallest), M (medium size), and X (the biggest). Class C flares usually have minimal impact to propagation. Class M and X flares can have a progressively adverse impact to propagation.

The electromagnetic radiation from a class X flare in the 1 to 8 Angstrom range can cause the loss of all propagation on the sunlit side of Earth due to increased D region absorption. Additionally, big class X flares can emit very energetic protons that are guided into the polar cap by Earth's magnetic field. This can result in a polar cap absorption event (PCA), with high D-region absorption on paths passing through the polar areas of Earth.

A CME is an explosive ejection of a large amount of solar matter, and can cause the average solar wind speed to take a dramatic jump upward--kind of like a shock wave heading toward Earth. If the polarity of the sun's magnetic field is southward when the shock wave hits Earth's magnetic field, the shock wave couples into Earth's magnetic field and can cause large variations in Earth's magnetic field. This is seen as an increase in the A and K indices.

In addition to auroral activity, these variations to the magnetic field can cause those electrons spiraling around magnetic field lines to be lost into themagnetotail. With electrons gone, maximum usable frequencies (MUFs) decrease, and return only after the magnetic field returns to normal and the process of ionization replenishes lost electrons. Most of the time, elevated A and K indices reduce MUFs, but occasionally MUFs at low latitudes may increase (due to a complicated process) when the A and K indices are elevated.

Solar flares and CMEs are related, but they can happen together or separately. Scientists are still trying to understand the relationship between them. One thing is certain, though--the electromagnetic radiation from a big flare traveling at the speed of light can cause short-term radio blackouts on the sunlit side of Earth within about 10 minutes of eruption. Unfortunately we detect the flare visually at the same time as the radio blackout, since both the visible light from the flare and the electromagnetic radiation in the 1 to 10 Angstrom range from the flare travel at the speed of light--in other words, we have no warning. On the other hand, the energetic particles ejected from a flare can take up to several hours to reach Earth, and the shock wave from a CME can take up to several days to reach Earth, thus giving us some warning of their impending disruptions.

Each day the Space Environment Center (a part of NOAA, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration) and the US Air Force jointly put out a Solar and Geophysical Activity Report. The current and archived reports are on the Near-Earth Data Online at SEC page in the "Daily or less" section in the "Solar and Geophysical Activity Report and 3-day Forecast" row. Each daily report consists of six parts.

Part IA gives an analysis of solar activity, including flares and CMEs. Part IB gives a forecast of solar activity. Part IIA gives a summary of geophysical activity. Part IIB gives a forecast of geophysical activity. Part III gives probabilities of flare and CME events. These first three parts can be summarized as follows: normal propagation (no disturbances) generally occurs when no X-ray flares higher than class C are reported or forecasted, along with solar wind speeds due to CMEs near the average of 400km/sec.

Part IV gives observed and predicted 10.7-cm solar flux. A comment about the daily solar flux--it has little to do with what the ionosphere is doing on that day. This will be explained later.

Part V gives observed and predicted A indices. Part VI gives geomagnetic activity probabilities. These last two parts can be summarized as follows: good propagation generally occurs when the forecast for the daily A index is at or below 15 (this corresponds to a K index of 3 or below).

WWV at 18 minutes past the hour every hour and WWVH at 45 minutes past the hour every hour put out a shortened version of this report. A new format began March 12, 2002. The new format gives the previous day's 10.7-cm solar flux, the previous day's mid-latitude A index, and the current mid-latitude three-hour K index. A general indicator of space weather for the last 24 hours and next 24 hours is given next. This is followed by detailed information for the three disturbances that impact space weather: geomagnetic storms (caused by gusts in the solar wind speed), solar radiation storms (the numbers of energetic particles increase), and radio blackouts (caused by X-ray emissions). For detailed descriptions of the WWV/WWVH messages, and

Normal propagation (no disturbances) is expected when the space weather indicator is minor. A comment is appropriate here. Both the Solar and Geophysical Activity Report and WWV/WWVH give a status of general solar activity. This is nota status of the 11-year sunspot cycle, but rather a status on solar disturbances (flares, particles, and CMEs). For example, if the solar activity is reported as low or minor, that doesn't mean we're at the bottom of the solar cycle; it means the sun has not produced any major space weather disturbances.

In order to predict propagation, much effort was put into finding a correlation between sunspots and the state of the ionosphere. The best correlation turned out to be between SSN and monthly median ionospheric parameters. This is the correlation that our propagation prediction programs are based on, which means the outputs (usually MUF and signal strength) are values with probabilities over a month time frame tied to them. They are not absolutes; they are statistical in nature. Understanding this is a key to the proper use of propagation predictions.

Sunspots are a subjective measurement. They are counted visually. It would be nice to have a more objective measurement, one that actually measures the sun's output. The 10.7-cm solar flux has become this measurement. But it is only a general measure of the activity of the sun, since a wavelength of 10.7-cm is way too low in energy to cause any ionization. Thus 10.7 cm solar flux has nothing to do with the formation of the ionosphere. The best correlation between 10.7-cm solar flux and sunspots is the smoothed 10.7-cm solar flux and the smoothed sunspot number--the correlation between daily values, or even monthly average values, is not very acceptable.

Since our propagation prediction programs were set up based on a correlation between SSN and monthly median ionospheric parameters, the use of SSN or the equivalent smoothed 10.7-cm solar flux gives the best results. Using the daily 10.7-cm solar flux--or even the daily sunspot number--can introduce a sizable error into the propagation predictions outputs due to the fact that the ionosphere does not react to the small daily variations of the sun. Even averaging 10.7-cm solar flux over a week's time frame can contribute to erroneous predictions. To reiterate, for best results use SSN or smoothed 10.7-cm solar flux, and understand the concept of monthly median values.

For short-term predictions, the use of the effective SSN (SSNe) may be helpful. In this method, an appropriate SSN is input to the propagation prediction software to force it to agree with daily ionosonde measurements. Details of this method can be found at


Propagation Planning for Contests

Propagation Planning for Contests
Using Propagation Predictions to Develop a Band Plan

Propagation planning for a contest effort is quite similar to propagation planning for a DXpedition (the latter work, titled Propagation Planning for DXpeditions, is available at ttp://  For both, you need to know when the bands are open. What separates propagation planning for contesting from propagation planning for DXpeditions is the extra step for conte band that gives you the highest score } which may not necessarily be the band that gives you the highest rate. The goal of this article is to provide a 3-step process that generates an a priori contest band plan to maximize your score.
This process is only needed for contest categories that require a decision with respect to -multi with aedicated station and sufficient operators on each band, then this doesQ÷W DSSO\ - all you need are - all you need are propagation predictions for your band to your target areas. Neither of these categori The concept behind these steps is the fact that our propagation predictions are statistical to get an electromagnetic wave from point A to Point B is a probability, as is the comparison of the predicted Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to a user-selected criteria.
Multiplying these two probabilities together for the most important paths and picking the highest overall robability should statistically put you on the right band at the right time to maximize your score.
Will adhering to these steps make you a winner? Not necessarily. Competitive contesting requires efforts in many areas other than propagation. Understanding propagation is just one piece of the larger puzzle.

experienced contester operating from a familiar QTH in a familiar contest, these steps QTH (in terms of knowing when the bands are open) or are in an unfamiliar contest (unique point structure to different areas of the world), these steps should help improve your score.
Step 1: Know the Contest
In order to maximize your score, you need to intimately know the contest. You need to know whom you can work. You need to know what the multipliers are. And you need to understand the point structure of the contest to identify which contacts are most valuable. 
The only way I know how to do this is to sit down and carefully read the contest rules.
Take notes if necessary.
The output of this step is the high-level strategy that identifies which QSOs are most but some are more important than others when it comes to scoring!)

Step 2: Run Predictions for the Paths for Your Most Important QSOs
for this exercise. It can be downloaded for free at There are several excellent 21 writings at, and my introductory tutorial at
VOACAP gives us the two necessary parameters that we need: the MUFday probability and the REL (short for Reliability) probability. The former indicates the probability (in terms of the number of days of the month) of having enough ionization to get RF from your QTH to your target area. The latter indicates the probability that the predicted SNR meets your selected criteria. but not to every place in the

Step 3 should help make this step clear.
Step 3: Be Flexible During the Contest
I cannot stress the following point enough } do not apply the band plan that comes out of and make changes on the fly.
The reason you need to be flexible is because the band plan was based on the model of  the ionosphere used in our propagation prediction software } it gives monthly median results. On any given day of the month, the next higher band could be better than the best

To help in this area, you should periodically check the next higher band. And use the NCDXF/IARU beacons on 20m through 10m to give a real-time assessment of these higher bands.

Example: A Multi-Single Effort from the Caribbean for CQWWCW This example will compare the process to a contest effort that already happened to see how well the process does. In 1997, K1TO, W5ASP, K9MK, and I did a multi-single effort in CQWW CW from ZF1A [note 2]. We ended up winning the World and setting a QHZ : to the old saying at all).
Since we were a multi-single entry, we had a decision to make as to what band the run station should be on for each hour of the contest. 
Being in the Caribbean meant our QSOs with the major ham population areas were worth different points. QSOs with North America were only worth 2 points, whereas QSOs with Europe and Japan were worth 3 points. Thus our most important QSOs were with Europe and Japan.
Should we therefore run predictions from ZF to Europe and Japan on all the bands? No } considered as bands to be on for a short period of time to pick up mults. So all we really though the smoothed sunspot number for November 1997 was 34 } miss any short duration openings. gives us the highest probability for the best score (3 pointers), not the best rate (2 pointers).
A comment about S 27dB in a 1Hz bandwidth (0dB SNR in a 500Hz bandwidth) as the input parameter to
VOACAP for our CW operation. For SSB, an SNR of 40dB in a 1Hz bandwidth (5dB SNR in a 3KHz bandwidth) is a good choice to input to VOACAP, and that gives around LQWHOOLJLELOLW\
antenna gains, try to be as accurate as possible with these values, especially over frequency with the Transmit antenna, as this will impact the results (through SNR). Figure 1 shows the MUFday and REL parameters, along with the product of those two parameters, from ZF to Europe and Japan on 40m through 10m for November 1997 [note 3]. The highest overall probability is shaded green for each hour, and this is what 
overall probability is shaded blue. Finally, 10m is shaded red. Figure 1 } Probabilities for ZF1A to EU and JA for CQWW CW 1997 UTC MUFday REL product MUFday REL product MUFday REL product MUFday REL product MUFday REL product MUFday REL product MUFday REL product MUFday REL product EU JA 40m 20m 15m 10 40m 20m 15m 10m close. For example, from 1300 to 1600 UTC, we should keep an eyH RQ P DV LW÷V QRW too far behind in probability to 20m } the day-to-day variability of the ionosphere could easily make 15m the preferred band during one or both days of the contest weekend. Similarly, we should keep an eye on 10m from 1300 to 1500 UTC } the likelihood of it openings to catch Qs and mults. mults. For example, in Figure 1 the overall probabilities of 40m to EU and 20m to JA at 2100 and 2300 UTC are close. 40m to EU would get the nod here.)
changes that ZF1A made. band, MHz highest 2nd highest 10m ZF1A Figure 2 } Comparison of the Process to ZF1A Band Changes Figure 2 is kind of busy, but what we would like to see is the black ZF1A line (the actual band changes) closely following the green bars (best band). As you can see, the agreement is pretty good when the comments about the second highest overall probability and 10m are factored in. And note that, indeed, the run station had excursions to 80m data in Figure 2 is for the first day of the contest. The second day was very similar, but with a bit more band changes to keep the rate up. 
Let me reiterate that this specific exercise compared the process to an effort that had already happened. In other word K1TO did the bulk of the run station work. He is very familiar with CQWW contests and statement that this process may not help everyone (an experienced contester operating from a familiar QTH in a familiar contest). -related factors that are important for contesting.
Get the Big Picture

Propagation Planning for DXpeditions.
azimuthal equidistant map) centered on your contest location. This will give you headings to the major contest population areas and to everywhere else in the world for multiplier hunting. It will also give you distances to your target areas, which could be important for short path / long path decisions. Finally, it gives you an indication of how high in latitude your paths to the major ham population areas go. This leads right into the
next section.

Understand The Impact of Disturbances to Propagation
There are three main categories of disturbances to propagation: geomagnetic field activity (designated as G in the NOAA scales), polar cap absorption events (designated as S in the NOAA Scales), and radio blackouts (designated as R in the NOAA Scales). For more information on the NOAA Scales, visit Geomagnetic field activity is caused by CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections) and coronal holes and can result in degraded propagation at auroral latitudes and decreased F2 region
ionization at mid to high latitudes (and on some occasions geomagnetic field activity can increase low latitude F2 region ionization } see the September/October 2005 issue of NCJ for details on this). Geomagnetic field activity is generally the most detrimental to contesting, as the duration can be for many days. A good example of geomagnetic field details of this are in the Propagation column in the January/February 2003 issue of NCJ.
Another good example is what happened to 10m in CQ WPX CW 2002 } see the March 2003 issue of CQ magazine for these details.
A polar cap absorption event (called a PCA) is due to energetic protons from big solar flares causing increased absorption on those paths across the polar cap (the area inside the auroral oval). PCAs only occur on average at the rate of six per year. Thus for all intents and purposes the probability of a disruption to a contest by a PCA is quite low.
Radio blackouts are due to electromagnetic radiation at X-ray wavelengths (1 - 10 Angstroms) from big solar flares causing increased D region absorption on the daylight side of the Earth. Radio blackouts are generally of short duration, so their impact is not as severe as geomagnetic field activity. And due to absorption being inversely proportional to the square of the frequency, the higher bands will be affected last and will return to

ZF2RR operation in CQWW CW in 2000. The details of this are in the Propagation column in the September/October 2002 issue of NCJ.

(specifically VOACAP in this case) as the basis for a 3-step process to develop a band plan for contest categories that require a decision as to which band to be on at any given time. Although this process was intended for single-transmitter categories, it should work nicely for two-transmitter categories, too } the second highest overall probability would be for the second transmitter. a plan and change it than to never have had a plan at all. the output of Step 1 is determined.
1. Our model of the ionosphere is a monthly median model, and as such it gives us monthly median results.
the myriad of factors that cause the ionosphere to vary on a day-to-day basis. More details on this
interesting subject are in the Propagation column in the August 2004 issue of WorldRadio.
2. You can read about this effort in the November/December 1998 issue of The National Contest Journal
3. Note the many instances on 40m of a high MUFday value coupled with a low (or zero) REL value. All
this says is that there is enough ionization to get 7MHz RF from ZF to Europe and Japan, but absorption is
prohibitive. Also note the several instances (10m to Europe from 1300 to 1600 UTC, for example) of a low

MUFday value so low), the SNR should be great } with absorption inversely proportional to the square of
the frequency, this makes sense.


Propagation Planning for DXpeditions

Propagation Planning for DXpeditions
6 Steps for a More Successful Trip

Planning a DXpedition involves many tasks ± choosing operators, securing equipment, arranging transportation, and a heck of a lot more. In the propagation arena, usually propagation predictions are run after all else is settled to identify when the bands are open to target areas.
Instead of doing propagation work after everything is settled, this article explains how propagation is affected by a variety of issues and encourages you to do propagation work before change propagation, but at least you can better understand the variables in order to help make the most important decision - when to go to best meet the goals of your DXpedition.
This is not a cookbook - go. But the information is here ± all you have to do is read it and apply it as best as possible. The decision when to go is still yours.

Step 1: Get the Big Picture
Using a great circle map (also called an azimuthal equidistant map), print out a copy centered on your DX location with the auroral ovals shown at a low K index. Since great circle paths are straight lines on this map projection, draw straight lines from your DX location to your target areas. Figure 1 (from DXAID by Oldfield) shows an example of  
Three important pieces of knowledge come out of this map.
First, the straight lines give you headings for your directive antennas ± both short path
and long path. The outer perimeter of a great circle map is halfway around the world ± on a north heading at about 12,000km). Any line that goes to the outer perimeter and southwest heading at about 23,000km). A comment ± with this map projection, the most distortion occurs at the outer perim northern auroral oval) look funny.
Second, the straight lines give you distances since the outer perimeter of the map is 20,000km and the distance is linearly scaled from the center. In general, the shorter paths provide stronger signals. Checking long path will be discussed in the Run Predictions step.
Third, the straight lines tell you if they are high latitude paths ± the ones that go through step.

Step 2: Understand the Impact of Geomagnetic Field Activity
Whe planetary A index) is less than 7 (indicating quiet conditions) versus the smoothed sunspot number.
Figure 2 is this plot.
What this shows is the quietest period in a solar cycle (with respect to geomagnetic field activity) is just after solar minimum ± where the Ap trendline (to smooth out the spiky Ap data) maximizes. Turning that statement around, the most disturbed period is just after solar maximum ± during the declining phase of a solar cycle when the Ap trendline minimizes.
Wo propagation conditions. In general, an elevated Ap index (which is the daily average of the eight 3-hour Kp indices) means propagation on paths going through or near an auroral oval could be disturbed for up to several days. If any path goes through or near either auroral oval, your DXpedition could have a problem with that path DXpedition just after solar maximum? Of course not. All it says is the probability of a disturbed path is higher just after solar maximum if the path goes to high latitudes ± it 
If you do go just after solar maximum, there is something you can do to lessen the probability of disturbed high latitude paths. And that is to go during the quietest months. 
Figure 3 plots the number of days in the month that Ap is less than 7 versus the months of the year (averaged from 17 years of data).mmer months (June and July) are the quietest. A good example of some forethought in this area is the 1998 8Q7AA DXpedition. Originally it was scheduled for April 1998, but data similar to Figure 3 resulted in moving it up to January. good news in relation to minimizing the impact of geomagnetic field activity. If the paths to your target areas stay at low latitudes (in other words, they lessened considerably.
± the ones that can cause radio blackouts (from radiation at wavelengths in the 1-10 range) and polar cap absorption events (PCAs ± from energetic protons) in? Solar flares are more in step with a solar cycle than geomagnetic field activity, so the probability of radio blackouts and PCAs is highest at solar maximum. But radio blackouts are short-term events (up to several hours) and PCAs only occur on average at the rate of 6 per year. Thus for all intents and purposes the probability of a long-term disruption due to big solar flares is quite low, and will be ignored.

Step 3: Know Basic MUF Trends
If your primary mission is the higher bands (15m, 12m, 10m, and even 6m), then the F2 region maximum usable frequency (MUF) is your major concern. This means you should some propagation disturbances due to geomagnetic field activity. composition change in the atmosphere at F2 region altitudes. A higher ratio of atoms to molecules gives more ionization targets, and this ratio is highest during the winter months. So daytime MUFs are highest during the winter months. A plot comparing daytime summer MUFs to daytime winter MUFs is pretty standard in books on the ionosphere. ± the amount of solar illumination along the entire path (especially the very long distance paths) also factors in and can modify the daytime MUFs so that the equinox months have the highest MUFs. In essence there are two processes competing here ± the change in composition of the atmosphere during the year and how the entire path is illuminated by the Sun during the year.The easiest way to sort this out is to run predictions to your target areas for different months and choose the month that best meets your goal.

Step 4: Run Predictions
There are many propagation prediction software packages available You can buy software to run your predictions, you can use free-download software to run your predictions (VOACAP and W6ELProp), or you can use the predictions in the ARRL Antenna Book CD.
For some background information on propagation predictions and prediction software, check out the Propagation Software Review presentation on the Dayton Antenna Summary 2004 link at
VOACAP is the Voice of America version of the well-respected IONCAP. W6ELProp is the Windows version of the discontinued MiniProp DOS series. For more information about downloading, setting options, running a prediction, and interpreting the results for these two programs, see and, respectively.
The Antenna Book CD predictions use VOACAP. The data is in two formats: a Summary Table and a Detailed Table. The Summary Table gives predictions for 80m, 40m, 20m, 15m, and 10m versus UTC and for seven general areas of the world, all on one sheet of paper. The Detailed Table is for 160m, 80m, 40m, 20m, 15m, or 10m, each with predictions yourself, then use the Antenna Book CD predictions. Note that the Antenna %edictions for the WARC bands ± the WARC band predictions can easily be derived by interpolation from the bands on either side.
Which software prediction program you use is, in my opinion, a matter of personal preference. They all start with a monthly median model of the ionosphere, so all of them differences are in the output data format and the bells and whistles.
Earlier I mentioned checking long path. A good rule of thumb to use is that if the short path distance is close to 20,000km, then it would be worthwhile to run long path close enough to warrant a look at long path (which is what is shown in Figure 1).Since predictions (MUF and signal strength) are statistical in nature, you essentially have two ways to present the data. You can either list all the times a given band is expected to be open, even though some times may be at a low probability (this is the format of the criteria defined for MUF and signal strength (e.g., at a 50% probability - the band should be open on at least half the days of the month and the signal strength should exceed your selected value on half the days of the month). easily readable (tabular) and readily accessible (one page) format for quick reference. 
Figure 4 including 160m (which will be discussed in the next step). that long path predictions are given for northern EU (OH as in Figure 1). And finally note that the team for planning their antennas and which bands to be on at a given time. You could <. ± this would be useful for DXers worldwide and could be put on the DXpedition website.

Step 5: Identify 160m Issues
Most of the propagation prediction programs do not include 160m. The reason is because 1.8MHz is close enough to the electron gyro-frequency to cause absorption, refraction, complicated very quickly. So how do we predict propagation on 160m?
Not having enough ionization to refract energy back to Earth (i.e., a high enough MUF) is not an issue on 160m, so it all boils down to signal strength ± of which absorption is a big pla
The easiest way to determine 160m paths in relation to darkness is with a map that shows both the great circle paths and the terminator. Figure 5 shows such a map, and this one comes from W6ELProp. A comment about the Geochron clock ± it only shows the terminator ± it does not necessarily show the great circle path between your DX location and the target area.
Of special importance on 160m is sunrise and sunset times at both ends of a path. Not only do these times tell when the path is in darkness, they also tell when to look for sunrise and sunset signal strength enhancements. Enhancements around sunrise are generally the most spectacular. Knowing these times will also help with skewed path propagation
Earlier I mentioned that the predictions in the Detailed Tables in the Antenna Book CD  include 160m. The 160m predictions are derived by subtracting 3 S-units from the 80m predictions (this is based on an analysis of East Coast data). Since these predictions only give on-the-hour values, the predictions are too coarse and need to be used in conjunction with sunrise and sunset times to address sunrise and sunset enhancements.
Be aware that certain times of the year may preclude 160m propagation (and 80m and even 40m propagation to a certain extent) to certain areas of the world. This is due to the path never being totally in darkness to certain locations. The best example of this is the 9..,5 '; darkness.
it was tough on 80m, too, but some got in through the back door ± via long path. Working with sunrise and sunset times for the various months will highlight which paths may have this problem.

East or West, magneto-ionic theory says horizontal polarization will couple the most energy in and out of the ionosphere. Since the major amateur radio population areas are at an issue even if you are near the magnetic equator. Additionally, when angle of radiation issu 160m due to low electrical heights above ground), the benefit of adhering to this issue may be lost in the real world.
So for 160m predictions, know sunrise and sunset times for your DX location and thetarget areas. Be on every night if possible, as propagation on 160m can be highly variable variable from hour to hour!). Finally, realizing that long distance propagation on 160m is probably via a duct mechanism in the electron density valley above the nighttime Eregion peak, try to go when the ionosphere is most stable ± around solar minimum.

Step 6: Check for Thunderstorms
If a big pplus QRN from nearby lightning discharges making 160m and 80m very difficult (if not
Figure 7, from the Handbook of Geophysics (the 1960 version, edited by the United States Air Force), is a worldwide map of thunderstorm activity for an entire year.
areas (the dark areas with very close-spaced contour lines) are those locations near the equator. In these areas, there are up to 180 days per year with thunderstorms. Are there any patterns to thunderstorm activity that would allow selection of a best month? In general, most thunderstorm activity in December, January, and February is 10 to 20 degrees below (south of) the geographic equator. Most thunderstorm activity in June, July, and August is 10 to 20 degrees above (north of) the geographic equator.
Thunderstorm activity in the other months tends to straddle the geographic equator.
A technique to help combat QRN is to plan on directional receiving antennas. For example, if your DX location is close to but north of the geographic equator, going during December, January, or February generally puts the thunderstorm activity off the back of your directional receiving antenna for the major ham population areas (NA, EU, JA). If your DX location is close to but south of the geographic equator, going in June, July, or August puts the thunderstorm activity farthest away and, coupled with good front-to-side rejection of your receiving antennas, may improve the low band QSO count to certain areas of the world.

Based on the information presented in this article, it would be nice to end with a tried and true set of rules dictating when you should go on a DXpedition. As stated in the opening next to impossible because most of the time out-of-phase issues exist. For example, a major DXpedition covering all the bands would ideally want to go at solar maximum for the higher bands due to MUF issues but would ideally want to go at solar minimum for the lower bands due to a quieter geomagnetic field for the high latitude paths.
If you do have the luxury of such long term planning, then by all means pick the years in the best season or at least the best month. Of course many DXpedition dates are set by factors other than propagation. For example, to go in January 2004 so as not to be too far down Cycle 23, but a transportation problem surfaced and postponed the DXpedition until January 2005. Undoubtedly the lower sunspot numbers in January 2005
compared to January 2004 will reduce their QSO totals on the higher bands. Another example would be going on a dual-purpose trip ± a DXpedition that also coincides with operation in a specific contest (like the FP/VE7SV operation for CQ WW PH at the end of October 2004). These are great examples of going when you have to and taking what you get.
Realizing that compromises are inevitable, in my opinion the best time for an all-band DXpedition is on the ascending phase of a solar cycle in a winter month (December or January). This scenario says sunspots are getting high enough for good propagation on the higher bands but geomagnetic field activity is still low. The next opportunity for this will be in the 2008-2010 time frame as Cycle 24 increases.


VOACAP Quick Guide

VOACAP Quick Guide

HF Propagation Prediction and Ionospheric Communications Analysis
Powered by Translate

by Jari Perkiömäki, OH6BG/OG6G

This is a work-in-progress guide to using VOACAP (Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program) - free professional HF propagation prediction software from NTIA/ITS, originally developed for Voice of America (VOA). This guide should get you well started with VOACAP. A more comprehensive discussion about the finer details of using the software can be found in George Lane's book Signal-to-Noise Predictions Using VOACAP. A User's Guide. The book is now available on CD-ROM.

VOACAP Online Prediction Services

VOACAP Online Point-to-Point Predictions

VOACAP Online 11M Point-to-Point Predictions

VOACAP Online Coverage Area Map Predictions

VOACAP Online 11M Coverage Area Map Predictions

What's New?

1. Downloading VOACAP

2. VOACAP - Backgrounds & Running the Prediction


The calculation engine, VOACAPW

Graphs & Colours

3. VOACAP - Understanding the Prediction



Signal Power & Noise Power

Antennas & Radiation Angles


4. VOACAP - Case Studies

5. VOACAP-related Papers

6. NTIA/ITS HF software HELP Topics

7. HamCAP User's Guide

8. Articles of interest





9. Tools & downloadable files for use with VOACAP

Find coordinates and Maidenhead grid locators just by pointing and clicking



Coordinate files

Save the coordinate files (*.GEO) at C:\ITSHFBC\GEOCITY\

Antenna and configuration files


Saturday, May 21, 2011

Lighthouse Name ARLHS Coordinates Gridsquare

Lighthouse Name ARLHS Coordinates Gridsquare
Number Lat Long Map
Ampenan (Lombok Island) IDO 099 08° 34.0' S 116° 4.0' E Map OI81ak
Amsterdam/Mios Su (West New Guinea) IDO 170 00° 21.0' S 132° 11.0' E MapPI69cp
Amsterdam/Mios Su (West New Guinea)
Apenberg (Sumatra) H IDO 363 00° 58.0' S 100° 21.0' E Map OI09ea
Aru Bank (Borneo) IDO 364 02° 15.0' S 116° 40.0' E Map OI87hr
Asoetoeboen (Yamdena Island) IDO 100 08° 30.0' S 131° 16.0' E Map PI51pm
Ayer Kumbang (Sumatra) IDO 101 02° 55.0' S 104° 54.0' E Map OI27kc
Bagan Asahan (Sumatra) IDO 102 03° 1.0' N 099° 52.0' E Map NJ93wa
Bakungan Island (Borneo) IDO 103 02° 6.0' N 118° 44.0' E Map OJ92ic
Balikpapan No. 2 Range Rear (Borneo) IDO 104 01° 19.0' S 116° 48.0' E Map OI88jq
Balingkar Hill (Borneo) IDO 105 03° 14.0' S 116° 14.0' E Map OI86cs
Batu Hitam (Sumatra) IDO 106 00° 54.0' N 104° 27.0' E Map OJ20fv
Batu Putih (Java) IDO 092 06° 52.0' S 113° 56.0' E Map OI63xd
Belawan Ocean Quay Range Front (Sumatra) IDO 107 03° 47.0' N 098° 42.0' E Ma NJ93is
Belawan Ocean Quay Range Rear (Sumatra) IDO 108 03° 47.0' N 098° 42.0' E MapNJ93is
Belawan Range Rear (Sumatra) IDO 109 03° 49.0' N 098° 44.0' E Map NJ93it
Benoa Harbor (Bali) IDO 110 08° 45.0' S 115° 13.0' E Map OI71og
Berhala (Sumatra) IDO 111 00° 52.0' S 104° 24.0' E Map OI29ed
Bintanah (Sumatra) IDO 112 01° 29.0' N 098° 10.0' E Map NJ91cl
Bitsyaru (West New Guinea) IDO 113 03° 43.0' S 133° 48.0' E Map PI66vg
Bontang Harbor Entrance Range Front (Borneo) IDO 114 00° 4.0' N117° 33.0' E Map OJ80sb
Bontang Harbor Range Rear (Borneo) IDO 115 00° 4.0' N 117° 33.0' E Map OJ80sb
Breueh/Pulau Bras/Willemstoren (Sumatra) IDO 051 05° 45.0' N 095° 3.0' E Map NJ75mr
Breueh/Pulau Bras/Willemstoren (Sumatra)
Buang Buang (Sulawesi) IDO 116 02° 4.0' S 123° 55.0' E Map PI17ww
Bui (Kaplauan Maluku) IDO 117 05° 7.0' S 132° 0.0' E Map PI64av
Bukit Badung (Bali) IDO 118 08° 49.0' S 115° 9.0' E Map OI71ne
Bukuan Island (Borneo) IDO 119 00° 52.0' S 117° 18.0' E Map OI89pd
Buleleng (Bali) IDO 120 08° 6.0' S 115° 6.0' E Map OI71nv
Bulukumba Papanambeta Point (Sulawesi) IDO 121 05° 34.0' S 120° 11.0' E Map PI04ck
Camplong (Java) IDO 089 07° 13.0' S 113° 19.0' E Map OI62ps
Cendung Laut (Sumatra) IDO 122 05° 34.0' S 105° 21.0' E Map OI24qk
Cilacap Inlet Corner Range Front (Java) IDO 052 07° 46.0' S 109° 2.0' E Map OI42mf
Cilacap Inlet Corner Range Rear (Java) IDO 053 07° 46.0' S 109° 2.0' E Map OI42mf
Cilacap Inlet Entrance Range Front (Java) IDO 054 07° 45.0' S 109° 1.0' E Map OI42mg
Cilacap Inlet Entrance Range Rear (Java) IDO 055 07° 45.0' S 109° 1.0' E Map OI42mg
Cilacap Inlet Second Range Front (Java) IDO 056 07° 46.0' S 109° 2.0' E Map OI42mf
Cilacap Inlet Second Range Rear (Java) IDO 057 07° 46.0' S 109° 2.0' E Map OI42mf
Cilacap Inlet Third Range Front (Java) IDO 058 07° 46.0' S 109° 2.0' E Map OI42mf
Cilacap Inlet Third Range Rear (Java) IDO 059 07° 46.0' S 109° 2.0' E Map OI42mf
Cimiring (Cilacap Inlet) (Java) IDO 060 07° 47.0' S 109° 3.0' E Map OI42mf
Cirebon (Java) IDO 123 06° 43.0' S 108° 34.0' E Map OI43gg
Damar Besar/Edam (Java) IDO 061 05° 57.0' S 106° 50.0' E Map OI34jb
Damar Besar/Edam (Java)
Dapur (Bangka) IDO 124 03° 8.0' S 106° 31.0' E Map OI36gu
Dewakang Besar (Sulawesi) IDO 125 05° 24.0' S 118° 25.0' E Map OI94fo
Discovery East Bank/Gosong Mampango (Borneo) IDO 132 03° 35.0' S 109° 10.0' E Map OI46ok
Discovery East Bank/Gosong Mampango (Borneo)
Dnapara/Jepara (Java) IDO 356 06° 35.0' S 110° 40.0' E Map OI53hk
Dnapara/Jepara (Java)
Doang Doangan Besar (Borneo) IDO 126 05° 24.0' S 117° 57.0' E Map OI84xo
Fort Concordia/Kapung (Timor Island) IDO 140 10° 10.0' S 123° 34.0' E Map PH19su
Fort Concordia/Kapung (Timor Island)
Fort Rotterdam (Sulawesi) H IDO 365 05° 8.0' S 119° 24.0' E Map OI94qu
Fox Banks (Borneo) IDO 127 03° 31.0' S 110° 11.0' E Map OI56cl
Gabion (Sumatra) IDO 128 03° 48.0' N 098° 43.0' E Map NJ93it
Gasong Baohi (Sumatra) IDO 129 01° 26.0' N 097° 10.0' E Map NJ81ok
General Elliot Reef (Bangka) IDO 130 02° 4.0' S 106° 19.0' E Map OI37dw
Gili Selang (Bali) IDO 131 08° 24.0' S 115° 42.0' E Map OI71uo
Giliraja (Java) IDO 090 07° 14.0' S 113° 48.0' E Map OI62vs
Idi (Sumatra) IDO 133 04° 57.0' N 097° 46.0' E Map NJ84vw
Jaga Utara (Java) IDO 062 05° 12.0' S 106° 28.0' E Map OI34ft
Jakarta Inner Harbor (Java) IDO 134 06° 6.0' S 106° 54.0' E Map OI33kv
Jakarta Westmole (Java) IDO 063 06° 6.0' S 106° 48.0' E Map OI33jv
Jamna (West New Guinea) IDO 135 02° 1.0' S 139° 15.0' E Map PI97px
Jangat (Sumatra) IDO 064 00° 58.0' N 103° 42.0' E Map OJ10ux
Jef Joes (West New Guinea) IDO 136 01° 45.0' S 131° 8.0' E Map PI58nf
Kalingat Range Front (Java) IDO 137 07° 3.0' S 113° 56.0' E Map OI62xw
Kalingat Range Rear (Java) IDO 138 07° 3.0' S 113° 57.0' E Map OI62xw
Kalu Kalukuang (Borneo) IDO 139 05° 11.0' S 117° 40.0' E Map OI84tt
Karana Muaras (Sambit Islet, Borneo) IDO 032 01° 47.0' N 119° 2.0' E Map OJ91ms
Karang Baliktaba (Borneo) IDO 141 02° 35.0' N 118° 0.0' E Map OJ92ao
Karang Derawan (Borneo) IDO 142 02° 16.0' N 118° 14.0' E Map OJ92cg
Karang Galang (Sumatra) IDO 143 01° 10.0' N 104° 12.0' E Map OJ21cd
Karang Heleputan (Sumatra) IDO 144 00° 38.0' N 105° 8.0' E Map OJ20np
Karang Jamuang (Java) IDO 065 06° 56.0' S 112° 44.0' E Map OI63ib
Karang Koko/Zwaantjes Reef (Java) IDO 145 07° 28.0' S 113° 7.0' E Map OI62nm
Karang Koko/Zwaantjes Reef (Java)
Karang Mas (Java) H IDO 366 07° 40.0' S 114° 26.0' E Map OI72fh
Karang Takarewataya (Sulawesi) IDO 009 06° 5.0' S 118° 55.0' E Map OI93lw
Kasenga (Bangka) IDO 146 03° 3.0' S 107° 21.0' E Map OI36qw
Kepulauan (Borneo) IDO 147 03° 39.0' S 116° 36.0' E Map OI86hi
Kimaan (West New Guinea) IDO 148 08° 1.0' S 138° 54.0' E Map PI91kx
Klirong IDO 374 07° 46.8' S 109° 37.8' E Map OI42tf
Koepang/Kupang (Timor) IDO 371 10° 9.0' S 123° 34.0' E Map PH19su
Koepang/Kupang (Timor)
Kolaka (Sulawesi) IDO 367 04° 3.0' S 121° 36.0' E Map PI05tw
Krueng Teunom (Sumatra) IDO 149 04° 27.0' N 095° 48.0' E Map NJ74vk
Kruenggeukueh Public Berth (Sumatra) IDO 150 05° 15.0' N 097° 2.0' E Map NJ85mg
Krui (Sumatra) IDO 151 05° 11.0' S 103° 56.0' E Map OI14xt
Labu Labu Kecil (Sumatra) IDO 152 01° 35.0' N 098° 36.0' E Map NJ91ho
Le Meule (Sumatra) IDO 153 05° 54.0' N 095° 20.0' E Map NJ75qv
Lebutan Island (Sulawesi) IDO 154 04° 56.0' S 122° 48.0' E Map PI15jb
Lemen Boedi (Borneo) IDO 155 01° 16.0' S 108° 52.0' E Map OI48kr
Lempuyang (Sumatra) IDO 156 03° 50.0' S 102° 17.0' E Map OI16dd
Lhokseumawe (Sumatra) IDO 157 05° 12.0' N 097° 8.0' E Map NJ85ne
Lhoutuan "OD" Range Rear (Borneo) IDO 158 00° 6.0' N 117° 28.0' E Map OJ80rc
Lilang (Sulawesi) IDO 159 01° 19.0' N 125° 4.0' E Map PJ21mh
Lingkas Approach Range Front (Borneo) IDO 160 03° 14.0' N 117° 37.0' E Map OJ83tf
Lingkas Approach Range Rear (Borneo) IDO 161 03° 14.0' N 117° 37.0' E Map OJ83tf
Madura Tanjung (Java) IDO 162 07° 8.0' S 113° 54.0' E Map OI62wu
Manado (Sulawesi) IDO 163 01° 24.0' N 124° 50.0' E Map PJ21jj
Mapia Entrance Range Front (Java) IDO 164 06° 59.0' S 112° 42.0' E Map OI63ia
Mariso (Sulawesi) IDO 165 05° 9.0' S 119° 24.0' E Map OI94qu
Masalembo Besar (Borneo) IDO 011 05° 34.0' S 114° 27.0' E Map OI74fk
Meatiy Miarang (Moa Islands) IDO 166 08° 20.0' S 128° 29.0' E Map PI41fp
Membok Island (West New Guinea) IDO 167 01° 24.0' S 130° 54.0' E Map PI58ko
Menganti Beach IDO 373 - - - -
Merapas (Sumatra) IDO 168 00° 56.0' N 104° 55.0' E Map OJ20kw
Merauke Range Rear (West New Guinea) IDO 169 08° 27.0' S 140° 22.0' E Map QI01en
Morong (Sumatra) IDO 171 01° 55.0' N 101° 46.0' E Map OJ01vw
Nipahlarangan (Sumatra) IDO 172 03° 54.0' N 098° 41.0' E Map NJ93iv
Nusa Lembongan Tanjung Taal (Bali) IDO 173 08° 40.0' S 115° 27.0' E Map OI71ri
Nusa Penida (Bali) IDO 174 08° 49.0' S 115° 36.0' E Map OI71te
Oeboer (Kai Kecil Island) IDO 175 05° 36.0' S 132° 44.0' E Map PI64ij
Pakolor (Sulawesi) IDO 176 00° 59.0' N 124° 57.0' E Map PJ20lx
Palau Balabalagan Island (Borneo) IDO 177 02° 32.0' S 117° 57.0' E Map OI87xl
Palau Celaka (Bangka) IDO 178 02° 52.0' S 107° 1.0' E Map OI37md
Palau Langkuas (Belitung) IDO 010 02° 32.0' S 107° 38.0' E Map OI37tl
Palau Numfoor (West New Guinea) IDO 179 00° 57.0' S 134° 50.0' E Map PI79jb
Palau Pelapasan (Bangka) IDO 180 02° 23.0' S 105° 45.0' E Map OI27vo
Palau Serutu (Borneo) IDO 181 01° 43.0' S 108° 43.0' E Map OI48ig
Palau Subi Kechil (Borneo) IDO 182 03° 3.0' N 108° 51.0' E Map OJ43kb
Palopo (Sulawesi) IDO 183 02° 59.0' S 120° 13.0' E Map PI07ca
Panarukan (Java) IDO 184 07° 42.0' S 113° 56.0' E Map OI62xh
Panjang (Sumatra) IDO 066 05° 28.0' S 105° 19.0' E Map OI24pm
Panjurit (Sumatra) IDO 185 05° 53.0' S 105° 47.0' E Map OI24vc
Pekalongan (Java) IDO 186 06° 51.0' S 109° 41.0' E Map OI43ud
Pelabuhan Perikanan Nelayan Cilacap1/PPNC1 (Java) IDO 067 07° 43.0' S 109° 1.0' E Map OI42mg
Pelabuhan Perikanan Nelayan Cilacap2/PPNC2 (Java) IDO 068 07° 43.0' S 109° 1.0' E Map OI42mg
Pelabuhan Perikanan Nelayan Cilacap3/PPNC3 (Java) IDO 069 07° 43.0' S 109° 1.0' E Map OI42mg
Pemangkat Range Rear (Borneo) IDO 187 01° 12.0' N 108° 59.0' E Map OJ41le
Probolinggo West Mole Head (Java) IDO 188 07° 43.0' S 113° 13.0' E Map OI62og
Pualo Rondo/Rondo (Sumatra) IDO 369 06° 4.0' N 095° 6.0' E Map NJ76nb
Pualo Rondo/Rondo (Sumatra)
Pulau Agusta (West New Guinea) IDO 189 00° 39.0' S 130° 35.0' E Map PI59gi
Pulau Ambungi (Borneo) IDO 190 02° 5.0' S 117° 16.0' E Map OI87pv
Pulau Armo (West New Guinea) IDO 191 01° 43.0' S 138° 48.0' E Map PI98jg
Pulau Batarkusu/Selaru (Selaru Island) IDO 271 08° 20.0' S 130° 49.0' E Map PI51jp
Pulau Batarkusu/Selaru (Selaru Island)
Pulau Berhala (Sumatra) IDO 192 03° 47.0' N 099° 30.0' E Map NJ93ss
Pulau Besar (Bangka) IDO 018 02° 53.0' S 106° 9.0' E Map OI37bc
Pulau Bojo (Sumatra) IDO 070 00° 39.0' S 098° 31.0' E Map NI99gi
Pulau Boo Besar (West New Guinea) IDO 193 01° 10.0' S 129° 18.0' E Map PI48pu
Pulau Brintanggar (Sumatra) IDO 194 01° 9.0' S 100° 20.0' E Map OI08eu
Pulau Buan (Sumatra) IDO 195 01° 3.0' N 104° 13.0' E Map OJ21cb
Pulau Dayangdayangan (Sulawesi) IDO 196 05° 24.0' S 119° 12.0' E Map OI94oo
Pulau Enggano (Sumatra) IDO 197 05° 21.0' S 102° 17.0' E Map OI14dp
Pulau Genting (Java) IDO 071 05° 51.0' S 110° 36.0' E Map OI54hd
Pulau Hinaka (Sumatra) IDO 198 00° 52.0' N 097° 20.0' E Map NJ80pu
Pulau Hulawa (Sulawesi) IDO 199 00° 58.0' N 122° 54.0' E Map PJ10kx
Pulau Ilir (Sumatra) IDO 200 01° 16.0' N 098° 49.0' E Map NJ91jg
Pulau Iyu Kecil/The Brothers (Sumatra) IDO 072 01° 12.0' N 103° 21.0' E Map OJ11qe
Pulau Jemur (Sumatra) IDO 201 02° 53.0' N 100° 34.0' E Map OJ02gv
Pulau Kantangkatang (Sumatra) IDO 202 01° 54.0' S 100° 34.0' E Map OI08gc
Pulau Kapoposang (Sulawesi) IDO 022 04° 42.0' S 118° 57.0' E Map OI95lh
Pulau Kapoposangbal (Lombok Island) IDO 203 07° 30.0' S 117° 10.0' E Map OI82nl
Pulau Karas Kecil (Sumatra) IDO 204 00° 44.0' N 104° 22.0' E Map OJ20er
Pulau Karsik (Sumatra) IDO 205 00° 36.0' S 100° 4.0' E Map OI09aj
Pulau Kelapa Range Rear (Lombok Island) IDO 206 08° 40.0' S 119° 14.0' E MapOI91oi
Pulau Kentar (Sumatra) IDO 207 00° 2.0' N 104° 47.0' E Map OJ20ja
Pulau Klah (Sumatra) IDO 208 05° 53.0' N 095° 18.0' E Map NJ75pv
Pulau Kraka (Banda Besar) IDO 209 04° 30.0' S 129° 53.0' E Map PI45wl
Pulau Kudingarenglompo (Sulawesi) IDO 023 05° 9.0' S 119° 16.0' E Map OI94pu
Pulau Kumamba Liki (West New Guinea) IDO 210 01° 35.0' S 138° 43.0' E MapPI98ij
Pulau Labu/Sidakah (Sumatra) IDO 211 00° 52.0' N 098° 57.0' E Map NJ90lu
Pulau Labu/Sidakah (Sumatra)
Pulau Larilarian (Borneo) IDO 212 03° 31.0' S 117° 27.0' E Map OI86rl
Pulau Layah Kecil (Borneo) IDO 213 01° 31.0' S 109° 20.0' E Map OI48pl
Pulau Lemoe Koetan (Borneo) IDO 214 00° 47.0' N 108° 42.0' E Map OJ40is
Pulau Lingga (Sumatra) IDO 215 00° 18.0' S 105° 0.0' E Map OI29lq
Pulau Liran/Wetar Strait (Sunda Islands) IDO 357 08° 3.0' S 125° 44.0' E MapPI21uw
Pulau Liran/Wetar Strait (Sunda Islands)
Pulau Loban (Sumatra) IDO 216 00° 59.0' N 104° 14.0' E Map OJ20cx
Pulau Loban Rear (Sumatra) IDO 217 00° 56.0' N 104° 12.0' E Map OJ20cw
Pulau Mamburit (Java) IDO 087 06° 51.0' S 115° 13.0' E Map OI73od
Pulau Manipa (Sulawesi) IDO 218 03° 45.0' N 125° 33.0' E Map PJ23ss
Pulau Mantang (Sumatra) IDO 219 00° 45.0' N 104° 31.0' E Map OJ20gs
Pulau Manutuang (Sulawesi) IDO 220 04° 26.0' N 125° 42.0' E Map PJ24uk
Pulau Maspari (Bangka) IDO 024 03° 13.0' S 106° 13.0' E Map OI36cs
Pulau Mayu (Sulawesi) IDO 221 01° 19.0' N 126° 22.0' E Map PJ31eh
Pulau Medang (Lombok Island) IDO 222 08° 8.0' S 117° 24.0' E Map OI81qu
Pulau Merundung (Borneo) IDO 012 02° 5.0' N 109° 6.0' E Map OJ42nc
Pulau Miang Besar (Borneo) IDO 223 00° 43.0' N 118° 1.0' E Map OJ90ar
Pulau Mondoliko (Java) IDO 224 06° 23.0' S 110° 56.0' E Map OI53lo
Pulau Moromano (Sulawesi) IDO 225 06° 8.0' S 124° 37.0' E Map PI23hu
Pulau Muci (Sumatra) IDO 226 00° 33.0' S 104° 2.0' E Map OI29ak
Pulau Mundu (Sumatra) IDO 227 05° 41.0' S 105° 50.0' E Map OI24vh
Pulau Murih (Borneo) IDO 228 01° 54.0' N 108° 39.0' E Map OJ41hv
Pulau Nongsa IDO 049 01° 12.0' N 104° 5.0' E Map OJ21be
Pulau Nuamuk (East Side) (Sumatra) IDO 229 01° 16.0' S 100° 18.0' E Map OI08dr
Pulau Nyamuk (Java) IDO 073 05° 49.0' S 110° 11.0' E Map OI54ce
Pulau Pandan (Sumatra) H IDO 368 00° 57.0' S 100° 8.0' E Map OI09bb
Pulau Pandang (Sumatra) IDO 230 03° 26.0' N 099° 46.0' E Map NJ93vk
Pulau Pangkil (Sumatra) IDO 231 00° 49.0' N 104° 22.0' E Map OJ20et
Pulau Panjong East End (West New Guinea) IDO 232 03° 0.0' S 132° 18.0' E MapPI66dx
Pulau Pardana (Sulawesi) IDO 233 00° 26.0' N 124° 28.0' E Map PJ20fk
Pulau Pasitanete (Sulawesi) IDO 234 05° 45.0' S 120° 30.0' E Map PI04gg
Pulau Payongpayongan (Borneo) IDO 235 04° 23.0' S 115° 50.0' E Map OI75vo
Pulau Payung Besar (Java) IDO 236 05° 49.0' S 106° 33.0' E Map OI34ge
Pulau Pengiki (Borneo) IDO 237 00° 15.0' N 108° 2.0' E Map OJ40af
Pulau Peniki (Java) IDO 238 05° 42.0' S 106° 43.0' E Map OI34ih
Pulau Penyusu (Bangka) IDO 025 01° 32.0' S 105° 41.0' E Map OI28ul
Pulau Perak (Sumatra) IDO 239 05° 41.0' N 098° 56.0' E Map NJ95lq
Pulau Pesemut (Borneo) IDO 240 02° 30.0' S 108° 50.0' E Map OI47km
Pulau Pini (Sumatra) IDO 241 00° 8.0' N 098° 31.0' E Map NJ90gd
Pulau Pisang (Sumatra) IDO 242 01° 0.0' S 100° 20.0' E Map OI09ea
Pulau Pulau Sambargalang (Borneo) IDO 017 04° 25.0' S 116° 10.0' E Map OI85cn
Pulau Rakit (Java) IDO 074 05° 57.0' S 108° 23.0' E Map OI44eb
Pulau Roti (Roti Island) IDO 243 10° 44.0' S 123° 3.0' E Map PH19mg
Pulau Roti (Roti Island) IDO 244 10° 44.0' S 123° 3.0' E Map PH19mg
Pulau Sabaru (Borneo) IDO 026 05° 6.0' S 117° 4.0' E Map OI84mv
Pulau Sabuda North East Point (West New Guinea) IDO 245 02° 38.0' S 131° 39.0' E Map
Pulau Sakala (Java) IDO 094 06° 56.0' S 116° 15.0' E Map OI83cb
Pulau Sapudi (Java) IDO 091 07° 6.0' S 114° 16.0' E Map OI72dv
Pulau Segama (Java) IDO 246 05° 10.0' S 106° 7.0' E Map OI34bt
Pulau Sekala (Java) IDO 075 06° 56.0' S 116° 15.0' E Map OI83cb
Pulau Sepanjang (Java) IDO 095 07° 12.0' S 115° 53.0' E Map OI72wt
Pulau Sigata (Sumatra) IDO 076 00° 8.0' S 098° 12.0' E Map NI99cu
Pulau Simedang (Belitung) IDO 029 03° 19.0' S 107° 13.0' E Map OI36oq
Pulau Sipura (Sumatra) IDO 247 02° 11.0' S 099° 44.0' E Map NI97ut
Pulau Sitijan (Borneo) IDO 248 00° 22.0' N 108° 45.0' E Map OJ40ii
Pulau Suanggi (Buru) IDO 249 03° 18.0' S 127° 28.0' E Map PI36rq
Pulau Tanakeke (Sulawesi) IDO 250 05° 32.0' S 119° 17.0' E Map OI94pl
Pulau Tanjungsau East Point (Sumatra) IDO 251 01° 3.0' N 104° 11.0' E Map OJ21cb
Pulau Temang (Sumatra) IDO 252 00° 22.0' N 099° 5.0' E Map NJ90ni
Pulau Terkulai West End (Sumatra) IDO 253 00° 57.0' N 104° 21.0' E Map OJ20ew
Pulau Tiga (Sumatra) IDO 077 05° 49.0' S 105° 33.0' E Map OI24se
Pulau Tikus (Sumatra) IDO 254 03° 51.0' S 102° 11.0' E Map OI16cd
Pulau Toran (Sumatra) IDO 255 01° 2.0' S 100° 10.0' E Map OI08bx
Pulau Tuguan (Sulawesi) IDO 031 00° 35.0' N 119° 48.0' E Map OJ90vn
Pulau Tunda (Java) IDO 256 05° 49.0' S 106° 17.0' E Map OI34de
Pulau Ujung (Sumatra) IDO 257 00° 26.0' S 099° 54.0' E Map NI99wn
Pulau Ular (Sunda Islands) IDO 358 08° 30.0' S 116° 49.0' E Map OI81jm
Pulau Wamar - Ular Point (West New Guinea) IDO 258 05° 45.0' S 134° 11.0' E Map
Pulau Wangiwangi (Sulawesi) IDO 259 05° 15.0' S 123° 33.0' E Map PI14sr
Punau Sumabawa (Sumatra) IDO 260 00° 54.0' N 098° 1.0' E Map NJ90av
Punta Kamudi (Java) IDO 093 07° 6.0' S 114° 48.0' E Map OI72jv
Rangas (Sumatra) IDO 261 04° 38.0' N 095° 31.0' E Map NJ74sp
Rasi Island (West New Guinea) IDO 262 01° 21.0' S 136° 38.0' E Map PI88hp
Rede Tegal (Java) IDO 263 06° 51.0' S 109° 8.0' E Map OI43nd
Rede Tegal East Side of Harbor (Java) IDO 264 06° 51.0' S 109° 8.0' E Map OI43nd
Rede Tegal West Mole Head (Java) IDO 265 06° 51.0' S 109° 8.0' E Map OI43nd
Rukan Selatan/South Brother (Sumatra) IDO 266 00° 33.0' N 103° 46.0' E Map OJ10vn
Rukan Selatan/South Brother (Sumatra)
Sabaru (Borneo) IDO 267 05° 6.0' S 117° 4.0' E Map OI84mv
Sangkapoera (Java) IDO 268 05° 51.0' S 112° 39.0' E Map OI64hd
Saoe Korem (West New Guinea) IDO 269 00° 33.0' S 133° 9.0' E Map PI69nk
Satui Muara (Borneo) IDO 270 03° 49.0' S 115° 28.0' E Map OI76re
Sawu Island/Seba (Sunda Islands) IDO 359 10° 29.0' S 121° 50.0' E Map PH09wm
Sawu Island/Seba (Sunda Islands)
Selat Bengkalis (Sumatra) IDO 272 01° 39.0' N 101° 51.0' E Map OJ01wp
Selat Berhala (Sumatra) IDO 273 01° 2.0' S 104° 22.0' E Map OI28ex
Selat Rupat "D" (Sumatra) IDO 274 01° 37.0' N 101° 53.0' E Map OJ01wo
Selat Sagewin Pulau Batanta (West New Guinea) IDO 275 00° 55.0' S 130° 36.0' E Map PI59hb
Semarang Mole (Java) IDO 078 06° 56.0' S 110° 25.0' E Map OI53fb
Sembilangan (Java) IDO 079 07° 4.0' S 112° 40.0' E Map OI62iw
Serdang (Sumatra) IDO 276 05° 49.0' S 105° 23.0' E Map OI24qe
Siberut Bay (Sumatra) IDO 277 01° 36.0' S 099° 12.0' E Map NI98oj
Simonga (Sumatra) IDO 278 03° 16.0' S 100° 34.0' E Map OI06gr
Singkel (Sumatra) IDO 279 02° 15.0' N 097° 46.0' E Map NJ82vg
Siumpu Popalia (Sulawesi) IDO 280 05° 41.0' S 122° 28.0' E Map PI14fh
Soeadja Moko (West New Guinea) IDO 281 02° 32.0' S 140° 45.0' E Map QI07il
Suggai Siak Range Rear (Sumatra) IDO 282 01° 12.0' N 102° 9.0' E Map OJ11be
Sungai Barito Range Rear (Borneo) IDO 283 03° 31.0' S 114° 30.0' E Map OI76gl
Sungai Merauke (West New Guinea) IDO 284 08° 29.0' S 140° 23.0' E Map QI01em
Tampo (Sulawesi) IDO 285 04° 37.0' S 122° 42.0' E Map PI15ij
Tandjung M'ba'a (Sumatra) IDO 286 01° 19.0' N 097° 36.0' E Map NJ81th
Tandjung Piring Middle Range (Java) IDO 287 07° 2.0' S 112° 41.0' E Map OI62ix
Tanjong Ajer Lantjoe IDO 370 02° 53.0' S 107° 21.0' E Map OI37qc
Tanjong Arus (Sulawesi) IDO 290 01° 53.0' N 125° 5.0' E Map PJ21mv
Tanjong Padang Tikar (Borneo) IDO 288 00° 40.0' S 109° 15.0' E Map OI49pi
Tanjong Petang (Borneo) IDO 289 03° 37.0' S 115° 58.0' E Map OI76xj
Tanjung Arang (Borneo) IDO 035 03° 33.0' N 117° 57.0' E Map OJ83xn
Tanjung Ayer Lancur (Belitung) IDO 036 02° 53.0' S 107° 21.0' E Map OI37qc
Tanjung Bakau "A" Ccommon Range Front (Sumatra) IDO 291 01° 32.0' N 101° 55.0' E Map OJ01xm
Tanjung Bakau "B" Range Rear (Sumatra) IDO 292 01° 32.0' N 101° 55.0' E Map OJ01xm
Tanjung Bakau "C" Range Rear (Sumatra) IDO 293 01° 32.0' N 101° 55.0' E Map OJ01xm
Tanjung Bandar (Sumatra) IDO 294 04° 49.0' S 103° 21.0' E Map OI15qe
Tanjung Bandaran (Borneo) IDO 295 03° 8.0' S 113° 3.0' E Map OI66mu
Tanjung Bansering Range Front (Java) IDO 097 08° 4.0' S 114° 26.0' E Map OI71fw
Tanjung Bansering Range Rear (Java) IDO 098 08° 4.0' S 114° 26.0' E Map OI71fw
Tanjung Bea (Sulawesi) IDO 296 01° 58.0' S 121° 38.0' E Map PI08ta
Tanjung Berikat (Bangka) IDO 037 02° 34.0' S 106° 51.0' E Map OI37kk
Tanjung Bula Bula (Sulawesi) IDO 297 05° 42.0' S 119° 46.0' E Map OI94vh
Tanjung Bunga (Bangka) IDO 298 02° 8.0' S 106° 11.0' E Map OI37cu
Tanjung Candiban (Java) IDO 096 07° 53.0' S 114° 28.0' E Map OI72fc
Tanjung Celong (Java) IDO 299 06° 54.0' S 110° 3.0' E Map OI53ac
Tanjung Cikoneng I (Java) H IDO 080 06° 4.0' S 105° 53.0' E Map OI23ww
Tanjung Cikoneng II (Java) IDO 081 06° 4.0' S 105° 53.0' E Map OI23ww
Tanjung Cukuhbalambing (Sumatra) IDO 082 05° 56.0' S 104° 34.0' E Map OI24gb
Tanjung Datuk (Sumatra) IDO 300 00° 1.0' N 103° 48.0' E Map OJ10va
Tanjung Emas (Semarang) IDO 040 06° 57.0' S 110° 25.0' E Map OI53fb
Tanjung Jambuair (Sumatra) IDO 083 05° 15.0' N 097° 29.0' E Map NJ85rg
Tanjung Kamdara (West New Guinea) IDO 301 02° 19.0' S 140° 7.0' E Map QI07bq
Tanjung Kanolanatumbi (Sulawesi) IDO 302 05° 17.0' S 123° 13.0' E Map PI14or
Tanjung Karang/Telukbetung Reef (Sumatra) IDO 303 05° 28.0' S 105° 17.0' E Map OI24pm
Tanjung Karang/Telukbetung Reef (Sumatra)
Tanjung Kelian (Banka Island) IDO 041 02° 5.0' S 105° 8.0' E Map OI27nv
Tanjung Kurong (Pulau Sawu) IDO 304 10° 8.0' S 123° 27.0' E Map PH19ru
Tanjung Labuan Compenie (Sulawesi) IDO 305 01° 26.0' N 125° 11.0' E Map PJ21ok
Tanjung Lameriki (Sulawesi) IDO 306 04° 10.0' S 120° 23.0' E Map PI05et
Tanjung Layar (Java) IDO 084 06° 45.0' S 105° 13.0' E Map OI23of
Tanjung Lebang "E" Common Range Front (Sumatra) IDO 307 01° 41.0' N 101° 48.0' E Map OJ01vq
Tanjung Lebang "F" Common Range Rear (Sumatra) IDO 308 01° 41.0' N 101° 48.0' E Map OJ01vq
Tanjung Lebang "G" Common Range Front (Sumatra) IDO 309 01° 41.0' N 101° 47.0' E Map OJ01vq
Tanjung Lelari (Bangka) IDO 310 02° 49.0' S 105° 57.0' E Map OI27xe
Tanjung Losoni (Sulawesi) IDO 311 02° 40.0' S 122° 2.0' E Map PI17ai
Tanjung Malagka (Sulawesi) IDO 312 01° 21.0' N 120° 48.0' E Map PJ01ji
Tanjung Manggar (Borneo) IDO 313 01° 13.0' S 116° 59.0' E Map OI88ls
Tanjung Mangkalihat (Borneo) IDO 043 01° 0.0' N 118° 59.0' E Map OJ90lx
Tanjung Margeta (Sunda Islands) IDO 360 08° 28.0' S 124° 25.0' E Map PI21em
Tanjung Mebulu (Bali) IDO 314 08° 50.0' S 115° 5.0' E Map OI71md
Tanjung Medang (Sumatra) IDO 315 02° 8.0' N 101° 39.0' E Map OJ02td
Tanjung Mimiabe (West New Guinea) IDO 316 08° 30.0' S 140° 22.0' E Map QI01em
Tanjung Nusanive (Buru) IDO 317 03° 47.0' S 128° 5.0' E Map PI46af
Tanjung Paciman (Java) IDO 088 07° 37.0' S 114° 2.0' E Map OI72aj
Tanjung Pakijongan (Sumbawa Island) IDO 361 08° 5.0' S 117° 56.0' E Map OI81xv
Tanjung Palle (Sulawesi) IDO 318 03° 44.0' N 126° 49.0' E Map PJ33jr
Tanjung Pandan Harbor (Bangka) IDO 319 02° 45.0' S 107° 38.0' E Map OI37tf
Tanjung Parit (Sumatra) IDO 320 01° 32.0' N 102° 26.0' E Map OJ11fm
Tanjung Pasang Kayu (Sulawesi) IDO 044 01° 10.0' S 119° 20.0' E Map OI98qu
Tanjung Pasir (Java) IDO 321 08° 6.0' S 114° 26.0' E Map OI71fv
Tanjung Pengambengan (Baki) IDO 045 08° 24.0' S 114° 35.0' E Map OI71ho
Tanjung Rainbawa (West New Guinea) IDO 322 01° 47.0' S 136° 54.0' E Map PI88kf
Tanjung Rambut (Sumatra) IDO 323 01° 0.0' N 103° 27.0' E Map OJ10rx
Tanjung Rangas (Sulawesi) IDO 324 02° 38.0' S 118° 49.0' E Map OI97ji
Tanjung Rangasa (Sulawesi) IDO 325 03° 34.0' S 118° 56.0' E Map OI96lk
Tanjung Ringgit (Lombok Island) IDO 326 08° 52.0' S 116° 35.0' E Map OI81hd
Tanjung Sabra (West New Guinea) IDO 327 02° 17.0' S 132° 17.0' E Map PI67dr
Tanjung Selatan (Borneo) IDO 328 04° 11.0' S 114° 39.0' E Map OI75ht
Tanjung Sofa (Sulawesi) IDO 329 00° 3.0' N 129° 18.0' E Map PJ40pb
Tanjung Tanahmerah (West New Guinea) IDO 330 02° 27.0' S 133° 7.0' E Map PI67nn
Tanjung Tokong (Borneo) IDO 362 01° 17.0' S 116° 49.0' E Map OI88jr
Tanjung Tua (Sumatra) IDO 331 05° 24.0' S 105° 43.0' E Map OI24uo
Tanjung Tuing (Bangka) IDO 332 01° 36.0' S 106° 3.0' E Map OI38aj
Tanjung Ular (Bangka) IDO 333 01° 58.0' S 105° 8.0' E Map OI28na
Tanjung Watutembatu (Sulawesi) IDO 334 04° 5.0' S 123° 15.0' E Map PI15ov
Tanjunj Tutpateh (Moa Islands) IDO 335 08° 31.0' S 127° 36.0' E Map PI31tl
Tegal Reef (Kai Kecil Island) IDO 336 05° 29.0' S 132° 49.0' E Map PI64jm
Teluk Krui Palau Pisang (Sumatra) IDO 337 05° 7.0' S 103° 51.0' E Map OI14wv
Teluk Maumere (Flores Island) IDO 338 08° 38.0' S 122° 13.0' E Map PI11ci
Teluk Muelaboh/Ujung Kareueng (Sumatra) IDO 350 04° 7.0' N 096° 7.0' E Map NJ84bc
Teluk Muelaboh/Ujung Kareueng (Sumatra)
Teluk Palu (Sulawesi) IDO 339 00° 38.0' S 119° 44.0' E Map OI99ui
Teluk Penyu IDO 085 07° 44.0' S 109° 1.0' E Map OI42mg
Teluk Sebang/Ujun Lho Me (Sumatra) IDO 340 05° 53.0' N 095° 19.0' E Map NJ75pv
Teluk Sebang/Ujun Lho Me (Sumatra)
Tinggi (Sumatra) IDO 341 02° 51.0' N 095° 58.0' E Map NJ72xu
Toboali (Bangka) IDO 342 03° 1.0' S 106° 27.0' E Map OI36fx
Ujang Peureula (Sumatra) IDO 343 04° 54.0' N 097° 54.0' E Map NJ84wv
Ujang Pidie (Sumatra) IDO 344 05° 30.0' N 095° 53.0' E Map NJ75wm
Ujang Tamiang (Sumatra) IDO 345 04° 25.0' N 098° 17.0' E Map NJ94dk
Ujumg Cukucimanuk (Sumatra) IDO 346 05° 39.0' S 105° 28.0' E Map OI24ri
Ujung Baro (Sumatra) IDO 347 04° 39.0' N 095° 32.0' E Map NJ74sp
Ujung Batumandi/Ujung Sungei Bramei (Sumatra) IDO 086 01° 3.0' S 100° 23.0' E Map OI08ew
Ujung Brebes (Java) IDO 348 06° 46.0' S 109° 1.0' E Map OI43mf
Ujung Karang (Sumatra) IDO 349 01° 44.0' N 098° 42.0' E Map NJ91ir
Ujung Kupiah (Sumatra) IDO 351 03° 15.0' N 097° 11.0' E Map NJ83of
Ujung Sirih (Sumatra) IDO 352 02° 41.0' N 096° 10.0' E Map NJ82bq
Ujung Walor (Sumatra) IDO 353 05° 13.0' S 103° 54.0' E Map OI14ws
Umpe Island West End (West New Guinea) IDO 354 01° 29.0' S 130° 59.0' E Map PI58lm